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Atmospheric Physics

The physical processes associated with radiative transfer, convection, clouds, turbulent mixing, sub grid-scale orographic drag and non-orographic gravity wave drag have a strong impact on the large-scale flow of the atmosphere.  However, these mechanisms are often active at scales smaller than the resolved scales of the model grid.  The effect of sub-scale physical processes on weather systems is expressed in the model in terms of resolved model variables using parameterisation.  This involves both statistical methods and simplified mathematical-physical models, (e.g. the air closest to the earth’s surface exchanges heat with the surface through turbulent diffusion or convection, which adjusts stability in the lowest layers).

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(Note: In older material there may be references to issues that have subsequently been addressed)

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