LISFLOOD calibration is performed on 14 parameters using an evolutionary optimisation algorithm (EA) with the modified Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE') as objective function (Kling et al., 2012). The selected parameters relate to overland and groundwater processes as well as channel routing and snow melt and are listed in following table. Feasible parameter ranges were defined for each parameter used in calibration to obtain more physically realistic calibrated parameters. Additional parameters were used to calibrate reservoirs and lakes.

SnowMeltCoefSnow melt rate in degree day model equation [mm/(C day)]M2.56.54
b_XinanjiangExponent in Xinanjiang equation for infiltration capacity of the soil [-]INFact0.0150.5

Exponent in the empirical function describing the preferential flow  (i.e. flow that bypasses the soil matrix and drains directly to the groundwater) [-]

UpperZoneTimeConstantTime constant for upper groundwater zone [days]Qugw0.014010
GwPercValueMaximum percolation rate from upper to lower groundwater zone [mm/day]Dugw,lgw0.0120.8
LowerZoneTimeConstantTime constant for lower groundwater zone [days]Qlgw4010000100
LZThresholdThreshold to stop outflow from lower groundwater zone to the channel [mm]Qlgw03010
GwLossMaximum loss rate out of lower groundwater zone expressed as a fraction of lower zone outflow [−]Qlgw00.50
QSplitMultMultiplier to adjust discharge triggering floodplains flow [-]Qch0202
CalChanMan1Multiplier for channel Manning's coefficient n for riverbed [−]Qch0.521
CalChanMan2Multiplier for channel Manning's coefficient n for floodplains [−]Qch0.551
adjust_Normal_FloodMultiplier to adjust reservoir normal filling (balance between lower and upper limit of reservoir filling). [-]
ReservoirRnormqMultMultiplier to adjust normal reservoir outflow [−]Qres0.2521
LakeMultiplierMultiplier to adjust lake outflow [−]Qlake0.521

Table 1 - A list of LISFLOOD calibration parameters for EFAS v4.0.