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ERA-20C is a climate reanalysis dataset covering the period 1900 to 2010.

ERA-20C assimilates observations of surface pressure and surface marine winds only. It is an outcome of the ERA-CLIM project.

The ERA-20C analysed surface parameters that are only available 6-hourly are those that are produced by the land-surface analysis scheme. Separate from the 4D-Var assimilation, the land-surface analysis scheme runs every 6 hours and only produces one temporal estimate at the centre of each 6-hour window. These 6-hourly parameters are:

  1. Sea-ice cove
  2. Snow density
  3. Sea surface temperature
  4. Volumetric soil water layer 1
  5. Volumetric soil water layer 2
  6. Volumetric soil water layer 3
  7. Volumetric soil water layer 4
  8. Soil temperature level 1
  9. Snow depth
  10. 2 metre temperature
  11. 2 metre dewpoint temperature
  12. Soil temperature level 2
  13. Soil temperature level 3
  14. Temperature of snow layer

The other ERA-20C analysed surface parameters are available 3 hourly. All the ERA-20C forecast surface parameters are available 3 hourly (from daily forecasts beginning at 0600UTC).

For further details please see the ECMWF product page.

Also of interest: ERA-20C: ECMWF's atmospheric reanalysis of the 20th century (and comparisons with NOAA's 20CR)

Known issues

Currently there are no known issues with ERA-20C.

Data access

Data is archived at ECMWF and available for download from ECMWF data services.


Poli, P., H. Hersbach, D.P. Dee, P. Berrisford, A.J. Simmons, F. Vitart, P. Laloyaux, D.G. Tan, C. Peubey, J. Thépaut, Y. Trémolet, E.V. Hólm, M. Bonavita, L. Isaksen, and M. Fisher. ERA-20C: An Atmospheric Reanalysis of the Twentieth Century, Journal of Climate, 2016, 29:11, 4083-4097, Doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0556.1

Some ERA-20C references available from the ECMWF E-Library.

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