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9.15

Introduction to the course

Director of Research and Sarah Keeley

 

 

 Land Surface (1): Introduction

By the end of the session students should be able to:

  • recognise land elements relevant to weather,
  • review land modelling strategies to heterogeneity

Gianpaolo Balsamo

new_surf1.pdf

 Land Surface (2):

This session will have two main components:

  • An overview of the role of snow in the climate system from observations, models and forecasts; with a description of the current representation of snow in the ECMWF model.
  • An overview of the role of vegetation in NWP with a description of the evolution of vegetation representation in the ECMWF model, supported by some evaluation examples.

By the end of the session, the students should be able:

  • Identify the main processes associated with snow and vegetation in NWP
  • Describe the main components related to snow and vegetation scheme in the ECMWF land surface model

Souhail Boussetta

TC2019_PA_Surf_partII.pdf


 Clouds (3)

Building on the previous two Cloud sessions, the practical implementation of a cloud parametrization is described, using the ECMWF global model as an example appropriate for global weather forecasting.

By the end of the session you should be able to:

•    explain the key sources and sinks of cloud and precipitation required in a parametrization

•    describe the main components of the ECMWF stratiform cloud parametrization

•    recognise the limitations of approximating complex processes.

Richard Forbes



 Parametrization and Data Assimilation

This three-hour lecture will start by explaining the role and main ingredients of data assimilation in general. The widely used framework of variational data assimilation will then be gradually introduced. The challenges associated with the necessary inclusion of physical parametrizations in the data assimilation process will be highlighted. The concept of adjoint model as well as the techniques to derive it will be introduced. The importance of the linearity constraint in 4D-Var and the methods to address it will be detailed. The set of linearized physical parametrizations used at ECMWF will then be briefly presented. Finally, various examples of the use of physical parametrizations in variational data assimilation and its impact on weather forecast quality will be given.

By the end of the session, the students should be able:

•    to name the main ingredients of a data assimilation system.

•    to tell why physical parametrizations are needed in data assimilation.

•    to identify the role of the adjoint code in 4D-Var.

•    to recognize the importance of the regularization of the linearized code.

Philippe Lopez

TC_PA_lopez_2019_main.pdf



10.45

Moist Processes Games

Richard Forbes and Peter Bechtold,

 

 Clouds (2)

This session describes the representation of subgrid-scale variability of humidity, cloud and precipitation and how this can be parametrized in atmospheric models.

By the end of the session you should be able to:

•    recognise the reasons for representing the subgrid variability of humidity and cloud in an atmospheric model

•    explain how the key quantity of cloud fraction is related to subgrid heterogeneity assumptions

•     describe the different types of subgrid cloud parametrization schemes.

Richard Forbes

TC2019_Forbes_L2_cloud_coldphase.pdf


 Convection (2)

Convection affects all atmospheric scales. Therefore, the convection session aims to provide a deeper understanding of the atmospheric general circulation and its interaction with convective heating and vertical transports. The notions and techniques acquired during the course should be useful for developers of convective parametrizations, forecasters and for analysing ouput from high-resolution convection resolving models.

By the end of the session you should become familiarised with

•    the interaction between the large-scale circulation and the convection including  radiative-convective equilibrium and convectively-coupled large-scale waves

•    the notion of convective adjustment and the mass flux concept in particular

•    the basic concepts behind the ECMWF convection parametrization and some useful numerical tricks

•    forecasting convection including convective systems and the diurnal cycle

•    diagnose forecast errors related to convection.

Peter Bechtold

CONVECTION_T2_2018.pdf

 Convection (3)

Convection affects all atmospheric scales. Therefore, the convection session aims to provide a deeper understanding of the atmospheric general circulation and its interaction with convective heating and vertical transports. The notions and techniques acquired during the course should be useful for developers of convective parametrizations, forecasters and for analysing ouput from high-resolution convection resolving models.

By the end of the session you should become familiarised with

•    the interaction between the large-scale circulation and the convection including  radiative-convective equilibrium and convectively-coupled large-scale waves

•    the notion of convective adjustment and the mass flux concept in particular

•    the basic concepts behind the ECMWF convection parametrization and some useful numerical tricks

•    forecasting convection including convective systems and the diurnal cycle

•    diagnose forecast errors related to convection.

Peter Bechtold

CONVECTION_T3_2018.pdf

 Parametrization and Data Assimilation

This three-hour lecture will start by explaining the role and main ingredients of data assimilation in general. The widely used framework of variational data assimilation will then be gradually introduced. The challenges associated with the necessary inclusion of physical parametrizations in the data assimilation process will be highlighted. The concept of adjoint model as well as the techniques to derive it will be introduced. The importance of the linearity constraint in 4D-Var and the methods to address it will be detailed. The set of linearized physical parametrizations used at ECMWF will then be briefly presented. Finally, various examples of the use of physical parametrizations in variational data assimilation and its impact on weather forecast quality will be given.

By the end of the session, the students should be able:

•    to name the main ingredients of a data assimilation system.

•    to tell why physical parametrizations are needed in data assimilation.

•    to identify the role of the adjoint code in 4D-Var.

•    to recognize the importance of the regularization of the linearized code.

Philippe Lopez


11.55
 
 Convection (1)

Convection affects all atmospheric scales. Therefore, the convection session aims to provide a deeper understanding of the atmospheric general circulation and its interaction with convective heating and vertical transports. The notions and techniques acquired during the course should be useful for developers of convective parametrizations, forecasters and for analysing ouput from high-resolution convection resolving models.

By the end of the session you should become familiarised with

•    the interaction between the large-scale circulation and the convection including  radiative-convective equilibrium and convectively-coupled large-scale waves

•    the notion of convective adjustment and the mass flux concept in particular

•    the basic concepts behind the ECMWF convection parametrization and some useful numerical tricks

•    forecasting convection including convective systems and the diurnal cycle

•    diagnose forecast errors related to convection.

Peter Bechtold

CONVECTION_T1_2018.pdf


 Radiation (2)

This module aims to introduce the fundamentals of radiative transfer theory and its role within the global atmospheric circulation. The lectures will also cover the techniques of numerical modelling of the radiative transfer equations in global-circulation models with a particular focus on the code in use in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System.

By the end of the session students should be able to:

•    Identify the key processes controlling the atmospheric radiative balance

•    Recognize the role of the radiative transfer in the Earth energy balance

•    Estimate the impact of changes in the radiative parameterizations on climate

Additional outcomes:

•    Develop skills in data analysis and numerical modelling

Robin Hogan

hogan_ecmwf_radiation_lecture2.pdf

 Radiation (3)

This module aims to introduce the fundamentals of radiative transfer theory and its role within the global atmospheric circulation. The lectures will also cover the techniques of numerical modelling of the radiative transfer equations in global-circulation models with a particular focus on the code in use in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System.

By the end of the session students should be able to:

•    Identify the key processes controlling the atmospheric radiative balance

•    Recognize the role of the radiative transfer in the Earth energy balance

•    Estimate the impact of changes in the radiative parameterizations on climate

Additional outcomes:

•    Develop skills in data analysis and numerical modelling

Mark Fielding

fielding_training_course_2019_radiation3_final.pdf


 Boundary Layer (3)

This session explains the different approaches used in numerical models to parametrize the turbulent mixing taking place at the subgrid scale, above the surface layer. Various turbulence closures are presented before describing closure currently used in the ECMWF model.

Expected outcomes:

•    understand what a turbulence closure is and what are the types of closures encountered in numerical models

•    have an overview of the parameterization of turbulent mixing in the ECMWF model

Irina Sandu

pbl3_is_2019.pdf

 Parameterization of Sub-grid Orography

On the basis of simple gravity wave theory, the concepts of sub-grib turbulent form drag, flow blocking, and gravity wave excitation will be introduced. The ECMWF formulations will be described, and the impact will be discussed.

By the end of the session students should be able to:

•    Describe the relevant physical mechanisms related to sub-grid orography that have impact on flow in the atmosphere.

•    Describe the impact of sub-grid orography.  

Irina Sandu

subgrid_orography_2019_is.pdf

subgrid_orography_2018_anton.pdf

14.15
 Radiation (1)

This module aims to introduce the fundamentals of radiative transfer theory and its role within the global atmospheric circulation. The lectures will also cover the techniques of numerical modelling of the radiative transfer equations in global-circulation models with a particular focus on the code in use in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System.

By the end of the session students should be able to:

•    Identify the key processes controlling the atmospheric radiative balance

•    Recognize the role of the radiative transfer in the Earth energy balance

•    Estimate the impact of changes in the radiative parameterizations on climate

Additional outcomes:

•    Develop skills in data analysis and numerical modelling

Robin Hogan

hogan_ecmwf_radiation_lecture1.pdf

 Boundary Layer (2)

This session focuses on representation of the surface layer, i.e. the layer between the surface and the first model level. More particularly, it explains how the surface fluxes are parametrized, and it gives insights on the representation of the surfaces roughness lengths which are one of the crucial aspects of the formulation of the surface fluxes.

Expected outcomes:

•    be aware of the difficulties related to the representation of the surface layer in a numerical model

•    understand how the surface fluxes are parametrized

Irina Sandu

pbl2_is_2019.pdf

 Land Surface (3): Cold Processes

Gabriele Arduini

Arduini_TC_surfPartIII_2019.pdf


 Model Evaluation: Clouds and Boundary Layer

This session will give an overview of techniques and data sources used for the verification of the boundary layer scheme. We will use examples from the IFS to explore how verification methods can help to identify systematic errors in the model's boundary layer parameterization, and guide future model development.

By the end of this session you should be able to:

•    Identify data sources and products suitable for BL verification

•    Recognize the strengths and limitations of the verification strategies discussed

•    Choose a suitable verification method to investigate model errors in boundary layer height, transport and cloudiness.

Maike Ahlgrimm

CldPblVeri2019.pdf

Moist Processes Exercises

Richard Forbes and Peter Bechtold


15.40
 Clouds (1)

This session gives a brief overview of cloud parametrization issues and an understanding of the basic microphysics of liquid, ice and mixed phase cloud and precipitation processes.

By the end of the session you should be able to:

•    recall the basic concepts for the design of a cloud parametrization

•    describe the key microphysical processes in the atmosphere

•    recognize the important microphysical processes that need to be parametrized in a global NWP model.

Radiation exercises

Robin Hogan

Land Surface exercises

Gianpaolo Balsamo and Souhail Boussetta

Boundary Layer & Cloud exercises

Irina Sandu, Maike Ahlgrimm and Richard Forbes

Course wrap up and certificates
16.40
 Boundary Layer (1)

This session gives a theoretical introduction of the planetary boundary layer, including its definition, classification, notions about turbulence within the boundary layer, differences between clear and cloudy boundary layers, and equations used to describe the mean state in a numerical model.

Expected outcomes:

•    understand what is the boundary layer, its characteristics and why it is important to study it and represent it correctly in numerical models

•    understand the difference between the various boundary layer types

Irina Sandu

pbl1_is_2019.pdf

Radiation exercises

Robin Hogan

Land Surface exercises

Gianpaolo Balsamo and Souhail Boussetta

Boundary Layer & Cloud exercises

Irina Sandu, Maike Ahlgrimm and Richard Forbes



 Overview of online training modules.

This session is to give you the opportunity to discuss anything that you have not understood or would like to know more about from the elearning modules.

By the end of the online learning modules you should be able to:

  • understand the basic notion of parametrisation
  • discuss the interaction between the large-scale circulation and the convection including:  radiative-convective equilibrium and convectively-coupled large-scale waves

 Diagnostics

Increasing observation volumes and model complexity, decreasing errors, and a growing desire for
uncertainty information, all necessitate developments in our diagnostic tools. The aim of these
lectures is to discuss some of these tools, the dynamical insight behind them, and the residual
deficiencies that they are highlighting.

By the end of the lectures you should be aware of:

  •   Some of the key weakness of the ECMWF forecast system 
  •   Some of the diagnostic tools used to identify and understand these weaknesses


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