Day-1 covered the use of Land Surface Temperature, the importance of Surface types and surface water cover in the morning

The afternoon has covered different LDAS systems, a common challenge seems to have enough spread near the surface.


On LST and IST:

On snow products/DA

-Boreal snow

-Orographic snow

-Forest snow (snow cover products in forested areas do not have much fractional resolution?)

-Understory snow (need innovative observations, e.g. cameras/drones)

-Satellite snow products (IMS, Hydrology- SAF, Copernicus Global Land, CCI-Snow, GlobSnow)

-SnowPEX compared different products 

On LDAS methodology:

-"Flow dependence" or "Errors of the day" are a recipe for improving snow, soil moisture and other land/near surface variables

-Moving away from OI towards Ensembles and EnVAR

-On T2m/RH2m assimilation aliasing atmospheric errors

-Direct Radiance Data Assimilation complex but may bring benefits (better representation)

-TSMM Terrestrial Snow Mass Mission 

-GNSS-RO community for Soil Moisture/Water bodies

On LSM shortcoming:

-Diurnal cycles

-Verify Day and Night separately

-Regional bias (Boreal Forest is an issue)

-Snow Fraction (need to represent hysteresis)

-Variable Water cover (separating permanent water from seasonal/inundated areas, ML approaches to delineate water bodies)

-Moving towards 2-way coupling to reinfiltrate and re-evaporate surface water and consider in LDAS (SAR data, SWOT data in October 23, P-band SNOOPI (RFI), BIOMASS, Copernicus Water-bodies/Water-product, Organic soil, Wetland)

-Ancillary datasets compilation (see Table with input data sets, boundary or initial conditions).


On insitu observations:

Coordinate observations network at WMO-level

COSMOS network very promising for verification. Is there an effort to collect the different national COSMOS Network

Metrics for using insitu soil moisture and snow observations

On satellite observations:

Short latency is key

Participating in WMO meeting in December is a way to convey our messages.