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Introduction

The global production system is used to produce the daily forecasts of pollutants, aerosols and greenhouse gases across the globe. Satellite observations of atmospheric composition are merged with a detailed computer simulation of the atmosphere using a method called data assimilation. The resulting analyses, i.e. maps of atmospheric composition, are used as initial conditions for the daily forecasts of atmospheric composition. Analyses and forecasts for aerosols and chemical species are produced twice a day.

A global production system is also used to assimilate re-processed observations from many satellites for the last few decades, using the same data assimilation process. The result is called reanalysis and it provides a consistent data set that can be used for scientific studies and trend analyses. The current atmospheric composition reanalysis produced by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service is the CAMS: Reanalysis data documentation (EAC4).

The IFS model and data assimilation system configurations (47r3)

The model used in the CAMS Global atmospheric composition forecast is the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) that also produces ECMWF weather forecasts, but with additional modules enabled for aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases that have been developed within CAMS and precursor projects GEMS and MACC. The following processes of atmospheric composition are considered:

  • transport of trace gases and aerosols
  • injection of emissions
  • uptake and release by vegetation and the land and sea surface
  • removal by dry deposition at the surface
  • removal by scavenging in precipitation
  • chemical conversion
  • aerosol microphysics

Emissions and surface fluxes of the trace gases and aerosols used in the global CAMS productions are:

  • anthropogenic emissions from the CAMS-GLOB-ANT inventory (available from the ADS)
  • natural and biog The ADS is not an operationally supported service and for any time-critical work users should rely on ECMWF FTP service instead. enic emissions from the CAMS-GLOB-NAT and CAMS-GLOB-BIO data sets (available from the ADS)
  • biomass burning emissions inferred from satellite observations of fire activity (GFAS v1.4)
  • wind-blown desert dust and sea salt emissions modelled by the IFS depending on the meteorological forecasts
  • CO2 fluxes from vegetation modelled by the C-TESSEL surface scheme (specifically for the CAMS GHG system) 
  • natural and biogenic fluxes provided from additional climatological data sets 

For details about simulations and assimilation of chemistry, carbon dioxide, methane and aerosols please see References.

The IFS uses a four-dimensional variational data assimilation method (4D-VAR) for the assimilation of a wide range of meteorological observations as well as satellite retrievals of atmospheric composition.

The IFS model documentation for various model cycles can be found on https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/documentation-and-support/changes-ecmwf-model/ifs-documentation. Please note that the IFS cycle changes during the years, and this page documents the current operational cycle (47r2); please have a look at the table below for details of changes from previous cycles.

Configuration for CAMS Global atmospheric composition global forecasts (daily)

Twice a day (at 00:00 and 12:00 UTC), CAMS issues a five-day forecast of global atmospheric composition. The forecast consists of 56 reactive traces gases in the troposphere, stratospheric ozone and seven different types of aerosol: desert dust, sea salt, organic matter, black carbon, sulphate, and (since 9 July 2019) nitrate and ammonium.

The initial conditions of the forecast are obtained by combining a previous forecast with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) , and sulfur dioxide (SO2) through the 4D-VAR data assimilation process.

Satellite observations of fire radiative power (GFAS) from the day before the forecast start are used to derive timely biomass burning emissions for the forecast. 

The forecasts are evaluated at quarterly intervals by an external team lead by KNMI and evaluation reports can be found here: https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/eqa-reports-global-services.

Evolution of the CAMS global forecasting system

The IFS undergoes changes regularly in order to improve the forecast. Changes are listed below with their identifier (Cycle 46r1 for instance) or a specific title when the cycle number did not change.

Implementation dateCycleSummary of changesResolution/Resolution changeNew species
22 Feb 202247r3A fix of low-level T/q in fog conditions was introduced with the 12 UTC cycle on 22 Feb 2022Horizontal: 40km, Vertical: 137 levelsnone
12 October 202147r3Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 137 levelsnone
18 May 2021 (12UTC cycle)47r2Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 137 levelsnone
6 October 202047r1Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 137 levelsnone
9 July 201946r1Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: from 60 to 137 levelsAerosols: nitrate and ammonium
26 June 201845r1Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 60 levelsSee Table 1 and 2
26 September 201743r3Atmospheric composition, MeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 60 levelsnone
24 January 201743r1Atmospheric compositionMeteorologyHorizontal: 40km, Vertical: 60 levelsnone
21 June 201641r1Atmospheric compositionMeteorologyHorizontal: from 80km to 40km, Vertical: 60 levelsnone

Data access

The data is now available from the Atmosphere Data Store (ADS), either interactively through its download web form or programmatically using the CDS API service:

CAMS global atmospheric composition forecasts

Currently only strings should be used as keyword values in a CDS API request for ADS data.

Analysis data are not available on the ADS webform but they can be downloaded using the CDS API service. In the request, the keyword 'type' and 'leadtime_hour' have to be set as 'analysis' and '0' respectively. Please have see the following example:

Example to download analysis data
import cdsapi

c = cdsapi.Client()

c.retrieve(
    'cams-global-atmospheric-composition-forecasts',
    {
        'date': '2021-03-24',
        'time': [
            '00:00', '06:00', '12:00',
            '18:00',
        ],
        'leadtime_hour': '0',
        'area': [           #North, West, South, East
            70, -18, 69,
            -17,
        ],
        'type':'analysis',
        'variable': 'total_aerosol_optical_depth_670nm',
        'format': 'netcdf_zip',
    },
    'download.netcdf_zip')

A subset of the CAMS Global atmospheric composition forecast data for the latest three days can also be accessed through the FTP service. For a list of variables available on the FTP please see here.

Access to CAMS global air quality forecast and analysis data through the ECMWF public Web API service ended on 30 June 2021.

To move to the ADS service, please follow our guidelines on How to migrate to CDS API on the Atmosphere Data Store (ADS).

Users with direct access to MARS can browse the data on the MARS catalogue under class=mc and expver= 0001.

Data availability (HH:MM)

CAMS Global analyses and forecasts:

00 UTC forecast data availability guaranteed by 10:00 UTC

12 UTC forecast data availability guaranteed by 22:00 UTC

It is possible that the data will be available earlier but without guarantee.

Variations in delivery times may occur due to the non-operational nature of this ADS service, as issues may arise which cause delays. For any time-critical work, users should rely on ECMWF FTP service dissemination system instead.

Spatial grid

CAMS Global atmospheric composition forecasts data currently has a resolution of approximately 40 km (approximately 0.35 degrees). The data are archived either as spectral coefficients with a triangular truncation of T511 or on a reduced Gaussian grid with a resolution of N256These grids are so called "linear grids", sometimes referred to as TL511. 

PLEASE NOTE: CAMS Global atmospheric composition forecasts data available from the ADS has been pre-interpolated to a regular 0.4°x 0.4° latitude/longitude grid. The keyword 'grid' is not supported in CDS API requests on the ADS.

Temporal frequency

The CAMS Global 5-day forecasts run twice daily from 00 and 12 UTC and the data are available every hour (for surface fields) and every 3 hours (for model- and pressure-level fields). The analyses are available every 6 hours at 00 UTC, 06 UTC, 12 UTC and 18 UTC.

From 21 June 2016 CAMS Global data is produced twice daily, with basetime 00:00 and 12:00 UTC.

Until 21 June 2016 CAMS Global data was produced only once a day, with basetime 00:00 UTC.

Data format

Model level fields are in GRIB2 format. All other fields are in GRIB1, unless otherwise indicated. NetCDF format is available on ADS but it is experimental.

Users are advised to use data in GRIB format. If this is not possible, users should download the data in GRIB and convert them to NetCDF with sufficient precision such that data values are correctly represented.

Level listings

Pressure levels: 1000/950/925/900/850/800/700/600/500/400/300/250/200/150/100/70/50/30/20/10/7/5/3/2/1

Model levels: 1/to/137, which are described at https://confluence.ecmwf.int/display/UDOC/L137+model+level+definitions. Before 9 July 2019, the vertical levels were 60, which are described at https://confluence.ecmwf.int/display/UDOC/L60+model+level+definitions.

Parameter listings

Physical characteristics of the different types of aerosols (i.e mass density, the radius mode and geometric standard deviation of the lognormal size distribution and the bin limits and hygroscopic factor), are available in Rémy et al. (2019). The suggested reference for the IFS aerosol optical properties and hygroscopic growth tables is Bozzo at al (2020).

Parameters labelled as "Fast access" are stored on disk while parameters labelled as "slow access" are stored on tape. Retrieval of this data will be MUCH SLOWER than disk-resident data.

Forecast meteorological variables are not available less than 6 days old and data returned from API requests will have recent meteorological fields filtered out automatically.

PLEASE NOTE: *Total column (in kg m-2) is available at the surface (model level 137 for MARS users; before 9 July 2019, model level 60). Total column refers to the total amount of the selected variable in a column of air extending from the surface of the Earth to the top of the atmosphere (model level 1 for MARS users). Total column can also be referred to as total <selected variable>, or vertically integrated <selected variable>.

PLEASE NOTE: Multi levels data are only available at 3-hourly intervals.

Table 1: single level parameters (last reviewed on  )

NameUnitsVariable name in CDS APIShortnameParam IDAccess typefcanNote
10 metre U wind componentm s-110m_u_component_of_wind10u165Fast accessXX
10 metre V wind componentm s-110m_v_component_of_wind10v166Fast accessXX
10 metre wind gust in the last 3 hoursm s-110m_wind_gust_in_the_last_3_hours10fg3228028

XOnly available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
2 metre dewpoint temperatureK2m_dewpoint_temperature2d168Fast accessXX
2 metre temperatureK2m_temperature2t167Fast accessXX
Ammonium aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlessammonium_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmamaod550210251Fast access
XOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Asymmetry factor at 1020 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_1020nmasymmetry1020215164
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 1064 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_1064nmasymmetry1064215165
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 1240 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_1240nmasymmetry1240215166
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 1640 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_1640nmasymmetry1640215167
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 2130 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_2130nmasymmetry2130215179
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 340 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_340nmasymmetry340215150
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 355 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_355nmasymmetry355215151
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 380 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_380nmasymmetry380215152
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 400 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_400nmasymmetry400215153
XXOnly available from 27 June 2018 00UTC
Asymmetry factor at 440 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_440nmasymmetry440215154
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 469 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_469nmasymmetry469215155
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 500 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_500nmasymmetry500215156
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 532 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_532nmasymmetry532215157
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 550 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_550nmasymmetry550215158
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 645 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_645nmasymmetry645215159
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 670 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_670nmasymmetry670215160
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 800 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_800nmasymmetry800215161
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 858 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_858nmasymmetry858215162
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Asymmetry factor at 865 nmdimensionlessasymmetry_factor_865nmasymmetry865215163
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Black Carbon Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nmdimensionlessblack_carbon_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmbcaod550210211Fast accessXX
Boundary layer heightmboundary_layer_heightblh159
X

Clear-sky direct solar radiation at surfaceJ m-2clear_sky_direct_solar_radiation_at_surfacecdir228022
X

Clear sky surface photosynthetically active radiationJ m-2clear_sky_surface_photosynthetically_active_radiationparcs20
X
Only available from 24 January 2017 12UTC
Cloud base heightmcloud_base_heightcbh228023
X

Convective available potential energyJ kg-1convective_available_potential_energycape59
X

Convective inhibitionJ kg-1convective_inhibitioncin228001
XX
Convective precipitationmconvective_precipitationcp143
XX
Direct solar radiationJ m-2direct_solar_radiationdsrp47
X
Only available from 24 January 2017 12UTC
Downward UV radiation at the surfaceJ m-2downward_uv_radiation_at_the_surfaceuvb57
X

Dry deposition of ammonium aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_ammonium_aerosolaerddpam215206
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Dry deposition of coarse-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosolaerddpnic215192
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Dry deposition of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55umaerddpdus215028
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9umaerddpdum215029
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_9-20umaerddpdul215030
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of fine-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosolaerddpnif215191
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Dry deposition of hydrophilic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosolaerddpbchphil215068
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of hydrophilic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosolaerddpomhphil215052
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of hydrophobic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosolaerddpbchphob215067
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of hydrophobic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosolaerddpomhphob215051
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5umaerddpsss215004
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5umaerddpssm215005
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20umaerddpssl215006
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dry deposition of sulphate aerosolkg m-2 s-1dry_deposition_of_sulphate_aerosolaerddpsu215082
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um) optical depthdimensionlessdust_aerosol_0.03-0.55um_optical_depth_550nmaeroddus215046
XX
Dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um) optical depthdimensionlessdust_aerosol_0.55-9um_optical_depth_550nmaeroddum215047
XX
Dust aerosol (9 - 20 um) optical depthdimensionlessdust_aerosol_9-20um_optical_depth_550nmaeroddul215048
XX
Dust Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nmdimensionlessdust_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmduaod550210209Fast accessXX
Evaporationm of water equivalentevaporatione182
X

Forecast albedo(0 - 1)forecast_albedofal243
X

Friction velocitym s-1friction_velocityzust228003
X

Height of convective cloud topmheight_of_convective_cloud_tophcct228046
X
Only available from 24 January 2017 12UTC
High cloud cover(0 - 1)high_cloud_coverhcc188
XX
Hydrophilic black carbon aerosol optical depthdimensionlesshydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodbchphil215080
XX
Hydrophilic organic matter aerosol optical depthdimensionlesshydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodomhphil215064
XX
Hydrophobic black carbon aerosol optical depthdimensionlesshydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodbchphob215079
XX
Hydrophobic organic matter aerosol optical depthdimensionlesshydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodomhphob215063
XX
Lake cover(0 - 1)lake_covercl26
XXOnly available from 03 September 2015 00UTC
Land-sea mask(0 - 1)land_sea_masklsm172Fast accessXX
Large-scale precipitationmlarge_scale_precipitationlsp142
X

Leaf area index, high vegetationm2 m-2leaf_area_index_high_vegetationlai_hv67
XX
Leaf area index, low vegetationm2 m-2leaf_area_index_low_vegetationlai_lv66
XX
Lifting threshold speedm s-1lifting_threshold_speedaerlts210053

X
Low cloud cover(0 - 1)low_cloud_coverlcc186
XX
Mean sea level pressurePamean_sea_level_pressuremsl151Fast accessXX
Medium cloud cover(0 - 1)medium_cloud_covermcc187
XX
Nitrate aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlessnitrate_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmniaod550210250Fast accessXXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Coarse-mode nitrate aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlessnitrate_coarse_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodnic215204
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Fine-mode nitrate aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlessnitrate_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaerodnif215203
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Organic Matter Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nmdimensionlessorganic_matter_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmomaod550210210Fast accessXX
Particulate matter d < 10 umkg m-3particulate_matter_10umpm10210074Fast accessXX

PM10 and PM25 global products

Particulate matter d < 2.5 umkg m-3particulate_matter_2.5umpm2p5210073Fast accessXX

PM10 and PM25 global products

Particulate matter d < 1 umkg m-3particulate_matter_1umpm1210072Fast accessXX
Photosynthetically active radiation at the surfaceJ m-2photosynthetically_active_radiation_at_the_surfacepar58
X

Potential evaporationmpotential_evaporationpev228251
X
Only available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Precipitation typecode table (4.201)precipitation_typeptype260015
X
Only available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Sea ice area fraction(0 - 1)sea_ice_coverci31
XX
Sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um) optical depthdimensionlesssea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5um_optical_depth_550nmaerodsss215022
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um) optical depthdimensionlesssea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5um_optical_depth_550nmaerodssm215023
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um) optical depthdimensionlesssea_salt_aerosol_5-20um_optical_depth_550nmaerodssl215024
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sea Salt Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nmdimensionlesssea_salt_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmssaod550210208Fast access
XOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sea surface temperatureKsea_surface_temperaturesst34

X
Sedimentation of ammonium aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_ammonium_aerosolaersdmam215207
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Sedimentation of coarse-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosolaersdmnic215194
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Sedimentation of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55umaersdmdus215031
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9umaersdmdum215032
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_dust_aerosol_9-20umaersdmdul215033
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of fine-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosolaersdmnif215193
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Sedimentation of hydrophilic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosolaersdmbchphil215070
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of hydrophilic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosolaersdmomhphil215054
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of hydrophobic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosolaersdmbchphob215069
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of hydrophobic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosolaersdmomhphob215053
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5umaersdmsss215007
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5umaersdmssm215008
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20umaersdmssl215009
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Sedimentation of sulphate aerosolkg m-2 s-1sedimentation_of_sulphate_aerosolaersdmsu215083
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 1020 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_1020nmssa1020215146
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 1064 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_1064nmssa1064215147
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 1240 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_1240nmssa1240215148
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 1640 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_1640nmssa1640215149
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 2130 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_2130nmssa2130215178
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 340 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_340nmssa340215132
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 355 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_355nmssa355215133
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 380 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_380nmssa380215134
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 400 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_400nmssa400215135
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 440 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_440nmssa440215136
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 469 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_469nmssa469215137
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 500 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_500nmssa500215138
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 532 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_532nmssa532215139
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 550 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_550nmssa550215140
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 645 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_645nmssa645215141
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 670 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_670nmssa670215142
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 800 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_800nmssa800215143
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 858 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_858nmssa858215144
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Single scattering albedo at 865 nm(0 - 1)single_scattering_albedo_865nmssa865215145
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Skin reservoir contentm of water equivalentskin_reservoir_contentsrc198
XX
Skin temperatureKskin_temperatureskt235
XX
Snow albedo(0 - 1)snow_albedoasn32
XX
Snow depthm of water equivalentsnow_depthsd141
XX
Soil clay content%soil_clay_contentaerscc210054

X
Sulphate Aerosol Optical Depth at 550nmdimensionlesssulphate_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmsuaod550210212

X
Sunshine durationssunshine_durationsund189
X

Surface geopotentialm2 s-2surface_geopotentialz129Fast access
X
Surface latent heat fluxJ m-2surface_latent_heat_fluxslhf147
X

Surface net solar radiationJ m-2surface_net_solar_radiationssr176
X

Surface net solar radiation, clear skyJ m-2surface_net_solar_radiation_clear_skyssrc210
X

Surface net thermal radiationJ m-2surface_net_thermal_radiationstr177
X

Surface net thermal radiation, clear skyJ m-2surface_net_thermal_radiation_clear_skystrc211
X

Surface pressurePasurface_pressuresp134Fast accessXXOnly available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Surface sensible heat fluxJ m-2surface_sensible_heat_fluxsshf146
XX
Surface solar radiation downward clear-skyJ m-2surface_solar_radiation_downward_clear_skyssrdc228129
X

Surface solar radiation downwardsJ m-2surface_solar_radiation_downwardsssrd169
X

Surface thermal radiation downward clear-skyJ m-2surface_thermal_radiation_downward_clear_skystrdc228130
X

Surface thermal radiation downwardsJ m-2surface_thermal_radiation_downwardsstrd175
X

TOA incident solar radiationJ m-2toa_incident_solar_radiationtisr212
X

Top net solar radiationJ m-2top_net_solar_radiationtsr178
X

Top net solar radiation, clear skyJ m-2top_net_solar_radiation_clear_skytsrc208
X

Top net thermal radiationJ m-2top_net_thermal_radiationttr179
X

Top net thermal radiation, clear skyJ m-2top_net_thermal_radiation_clear_skyttrc209
X

Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 1020 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_1020nmaodabs1020215110
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 1064 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_1064nmaodabs1064215111
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 1240 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_1240nmaodabs1240215112
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 1640 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_1640nmaodabs1640215113
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 2130 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_2130nmaodabs2130215176
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 340 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_340nmaodabs340215096
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 355 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_355nmaodabs355215097
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 380 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_380nmaodabs380215098
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 400 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_400nmaodabs400215099
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 440 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_440nmaodabs440215100
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 469 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_469nmaodabs469215101
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 500 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_500nmaodabs500215102
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 532 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_532nmaodabs532215103
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaodabs550215104
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 645 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_645nmaodabs645215105
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 670 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_670nmaodabs670215106
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 800 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_800nmaodabs800215107
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 858 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_858nmaodabs858215108
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total absorption aerosol optical depth at 865 nmdimensionlesstotal_absorption_aerosol_optical_depth_865nmaodabs865215109
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 1020 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_1020nmaod1020210227
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 1064 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_1064nmaod1064210228
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 1240nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_1240nmaod1240210216Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 1640 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_1640nmaod1640210229
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 2130 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_2130nmaod2130210230
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 340 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_340nmaod340210217
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 355 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_355nmaod355210218
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 380 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_380nmaod380210219
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 400 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_400nmaod400210220
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 440 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_440nmaod440210221
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 469nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_469nmaod469210213Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 500 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_500nmaod500210222
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 532 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_532nmaod532210223
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 550nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaod550210207Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 645 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_645nmaod645210224
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 670nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_670nmaod670210214Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 800 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_800nmaod800210225
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 858 nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_858nmaod858210226
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total aerosol optical depth at 865nmdimensionlesstotal_aerosol_optical_depth_865nmaod865210215Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total cloud cover(0 - 1)total_cloud_covertcc164
XX
Total column acetonekg m-2total_column_acetonetc_ch3coch3218052
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column acetone productkg m-2total_column_acetone_producttc_aco2218053
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column aldehydeskg m-2total_column_aldehydestc_ald2218012
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column aminekg m-2total_column_aminetc_nh2218040
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column ammoniakg m-2total_column_ammoniatc_nh3218019
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column ammoniumkg m-2total_column_ammoniumtc_nh4218021
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Total column Carbon monoxidekg m-2total_column_carbon_monoxidetcco210127Fast accessXX
Total column cloud ice waterkg m-2total_column_cloud_ice_watertciw79
XX
Total column cloud liquid waterkg m-2total_column_cloud_liquid_watertclw78
XX
Total column dimethyl sulfidekg m-2total_column_dimethyl_sulfidetc_dms218018
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column dinitrogen pentoxidekg m-2total_column_dinitrogen_pentoxidetc_n2o5218033
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column  ethanekg m-2total_column_ethanetc_c2h6218045Fast accessXX
Total column ethanolkg m-2total_column_ethanoltc_c2h5oh218046
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column ethenekg m-2total_column_ethenetc_c2h4218010
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column Formaldehydekg m-2total_column_formaldehydetchcho210128Fast accessXX
Total column formic acidkg m-2total_column_formic_acidtc_hcooh218043
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column hydrogen peroxidekg m-2total_column_hydrogen_peroxidetc_h2o2218003Fast accessXXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column hydroperoxy radicalkg m-2total_column_hydroperoxy_radicaltc_ho2218028
XXOnly available from 20 June 2017 00UTC
Total column hydroxyl radicalkg m-2total_column_hydroxyl_radicaltc_oh218030Fast accessXX
Total column HYPROPO2kg m-2total_column_hypropo2tc_hypropo2218055
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column IC3H7O2kg m-2total_column_ic3h7o2tc_ic3h7o2218054
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column  isoprenekg m-2total_column_isoprenetc_c5h8218016Fast accessXX
Total column  leadkg m-2total_column_leadtc_pb218026
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column methacrolein MVKkg m-2total_column_methacrolein_mvktc_ispd218050
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column  methacrylic acidkg m-2total_column_methacrylic_acidtc_mcooh218044
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column methanekg m-2total_column_methanetc_ch4218004Fast accessXX
Total column  methane sulfonic acidkg m-2total_column_methane_sulfonic_acidtc_msa218022
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column methanolkg m-2total_column_methanoltc_ch3oh218042
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column methyl glyoxalkg m-2total_column_methyl_glyoxaltc_ch3cocho218023
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column methyl peroxidekg m-2total_column_methyl_peroxidetc_ch3ooh218007
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column methylperoxy radicalkg m-2total_column_methylperoxy_radicaltc_ch3o2218029
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column nitratekg m-2total_column_nitratetc_no3_a218051
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column nitrate radicalkg m-2total_column_nitrate_radicaltc_no3218032
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column nitric acidkg m-2total_column_nitric_acidtc_hno3218006Fast accessXX
Total column Nitrogen dioxidekg m-2total_column_nitrogen_dioxidetcno2210125Fast accessXX
Total column nitrogen monoxidekg m-2total_column_nitrogen_monoxidetc_no218027Fast accessXX
Total column nitrogen oxides Transpkg m-2total_column_nitrogen_oxides_transptc_noxa218056
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column NO to alkyl nitrate operatorkg m-2total_column_no_to_alkyl_nitrate_operatortc_xo2n218039
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column NO to NO2 operatorkg m-2total_column_no_to_no2_operatortc_xo2218038
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column olefinskg m-2total_column_olefinstc_ole218011
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column  organic etherskg m-2total_column_organic_etherstc_ror218036
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column organic nitrateskg m-2total_column_organic_nitratestc_onit218015
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
GEMS Total column ozonekg m-2total_column_ozonegtco3210206Fast accessXX
Total column PAR budget correctorkg m-2total_column_par_budget_correctortc_rxpar218037
XX
Total column paraffinskg m-2total_column_paraffinstc_par218009
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column pernitric acidkg m-2total_column_pernitric_acidtc_ho2no2218034
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column peroxideskg m-2total_column_peroxidestc_rooh218014
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column peroxy acetyl radicalkg m-2total_column_peroxy_acetyl_radicaltc_c2o3218035
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column  peroxyacetyl nitratekg m-2total_column_peroxyacetyl_nitratetc_pan218013Fast accessXX
Total column  polar stratospheric cloudkg m-2total_column_polar_stratospheric_cloudtc_psc218041
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column propanekg m-2total_column_propanetc_c3h8218047Fast accessXX
Total column propenekg m-2total_column_propenetc_c3h6218048
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column Radonkg m-2total_column_radontcra210183
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column rain waterkg m-2total_column_rain_watertcrw228089
XXOnly available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Total column snow waterkg m-2total_column_snow_watertcsw228090
XXOnly available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Source/gain of ammonium aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_ammonium_aerosolaersrcam215205
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Source/gain of coarse-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosolaersrcnic215190
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Source/gain of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55umaersrcdus215025
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9umaersrcdum215026
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_dust_aerosol_9-20umaersrcdul215027
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of fine-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosolaersrcnif215189
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of hydrophilic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosolaersrcbchphil215066
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of hydrophilic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosolaersrcomhphil215050
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of hydrophobic black carbon aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosolaersrcbchphob215065
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of hydrophobic organic matter aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosolaersrcomhphob215049
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5umaersrcsss215001
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5umaersrcssm215002
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um)kg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20umaersrcssl215003
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Source/gain of sulphate aerosolkg m-2 s-1total_column_source_of_sulphate_aerosolaersrcsu215081
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total column stratospheric ozonekg m-2total_column_stratospheric_ozonetc_o3s218024
XXOnly available from 20 June 2017 00UTC
Total column Sulphur dioxidekg m-2total_column_sulphur_dioxidetcso2210126Fast accessXX
Total column supercooled liquid waterkg m-2total_column_supercooled_liquid_watertcslw228088
X
Only available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Total column terpeneskg m-2total_column_terpenestc_c10h16218049
XXOnly available from 06 October 2020 00UTC
Total column waterkg m-2total_column_watertcw136
XX
Total column water vapourkg m-2total_column_water_vapourtcwv137Fast accessXX
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 1020 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_1020nmaodfm1020215128
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 1064 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_1064nmaodfm1064215129
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 1240 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_1240nmaodfm1240215130
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 1640 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_1640nmaodfm1640215131
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 2130 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_2130nmaodfm2130215177
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 340 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_340nmaodfm340215114
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 355 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_355nmaodfm355215115
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 380 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_380nmaodfm380215116
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 400 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_400nmaodfm400215117
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 440 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_440nmaodfm440215118
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 469 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_469nmaodfm469215119
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 500 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_500nmaodfm500215120
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 532 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_532nmaodfm532215121
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 550 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_550nmaodfm550215122
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 645 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_645nmaodfm645215123
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 670 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_670nmaodfm670215124
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 800 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_800nmaodfm800215125
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 858 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_858nmaodfm858215126
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total fine mode (r < 0.5 um) aerosol optical depth at 865 nmdimensionlesstotal_fine_mode_aerosol_optical_depth_865nmaodfm865215127
XXOnly available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Total precipitationmtotal_precipitationtp228
XX
Total sky direct solar radiation at surfaceJ m-2total_sky_direct_solar_radiation_at_surfacefdir228021
X

UV biologically effective dosedimensionlessuv_biologically_effective_doseuvbed214002Fast accessXXOnly available from 03 September 2015 00UTC
UV biologically effective dose clear-skydimensionlessuv_biologically_effective_dose_clear_skyuvbedcs214003Fast accessXXOnly available from 03 September 2015 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of ammonium aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_ammonium_aerosolaermssam215211
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of coarse-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosolaermssnic215202
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55umaermssdus215043
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9umaermssdum215044
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_dust_aerosol_9-20umaermssdul215045
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of fine-mode nitrate aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosolaermssnif215201
XXOnly available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of hydrophilic black carbon aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosolaermssbchphil215078
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of hydrophilic organic matter aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosolaermssomhphil215062
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of hydrophobic black carbon aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosolaermssbchphob215077
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of hydrophobic organic matter aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosolaermssomhphob215061
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5umaermsssss215019
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5umaermssssm215020
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um)kg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20umaermssssl215021
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated mass of sulphate aerosolkg m-2vertically_integrated_mass_of_sulphate_aerosolaermsssu215087
XXOnly available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Vertically integrated moisture divergencekg m-2vertically_integrated_moisture_divergencevimd213
X
Only available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Visibilitymvisibilityvis3020
X
Only available from 21 June 2016 00UTC
Wet deposition of ammonium aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_ammonium_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdcam215209
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Wet deposition of ammonium aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_ammonium_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlam215208
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Wet deposition of coarse-mode nitrate aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdcnic215198
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Wet deposition of coarse-mode nitrate aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_coarse_mode_nitrate_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlnic215196
X
Only available from 9 July 2019 00UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccdus215037
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsdus215034
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccdum215038
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (0.55 - 9 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_0.55-9um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsdum215035
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_9-20um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccdul215039
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of dust aerosol (9 - 20 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_dust_aerosol_9-20um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsdul215036
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of fine-mode nitrate aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdcnif215197
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of fine-mode nitrate aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_fine_mode_nitrate_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlnif215195
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophilic black carbon aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccbchphil215074
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophilic black carbon aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsbchphil215072
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophilic organic matter aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccomhphil215058
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophilic organic matter aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsomhphil215056
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophobic black carbon aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccbchphob215073
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophobic black carbon aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsbchphob215071
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophobic organic matter aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccomhphob215057
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of hydrophobic organic matter aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsomhphob215055
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccsss215013
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlssss215010
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccssm215014
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (0.5 - 5 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsssm215011
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um) by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20um_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccssl215015
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sea salt aerosol (5 - 20 um) by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sea_salt_aerosol_5-20um_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlsssl215012
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sulphate aerosol by convective precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sulphate_aerosol_by_convective_precipitationaerwdccsu215085
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC
Wet deposition of sulphate aerosol by large-scale precipitationkg m-2 s-1wet_deposition_of_sulphate_aerosol_by_large_scale_precipitationaerwdlssu215084
X
Only available from 26 June 2018 12UTC

Table 2: Multi-level parameters (last reviewed on  )

NameUnitsVariable name in CDS APIShortnameParam IDAccess typefcanNote
Acetonekg kg-1acetonech3coch3217052
XX
Acetone productkg kg-1acetone_productaco2217053
XX
Aerosol extinction coefficient at 1064 nmm-1aerosol_extinction_coefficient_1064nmaerext1064215182
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol extinction coefficient at 355 nmm-1aerosol_extinction_coefficient_355nmaerext355215180
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol extinction coefficient at 532 nmm-1aerosol_extinction_coefficient_532nmaerext532215181
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aldehydeskg kg-1aldehydesald2217012
XX
Aminekg kg-1aminenh2217040
XX
Ammoniakg kg-1ammonianh3217019
XX
Ammoniumkg kg-1ammoniumnh4217021
XX
Ammonium aerosol mass mixing ratiokg kg-1ammonium_aerosol_mass_mixing_ratioaermr18210249Fast accessXX
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm (from ground)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_1064nm_from_groundaerbackscatgnd1064215188
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm (from top of atmosphere)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_1064nm_from_top_of_atmosphereaerbackscattoa1064215185
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 355 nm (from ground)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_355nm_from_groundaerbackscatgnd355215186
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 355 nm (from top of atmosphere)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_355nm_from_top_of_atmosphereaerbackscattoa355215183
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm (from ground)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_532nm_from_groundaerbackscatgnd532215187
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm (from top of atmosphere)m-1 sr-1attenuated_backscatter_due_to_aerosol_532nm_from_top_of_atmosphereaerbackscattoa532215184
X
Only available from 26 September 2017 00UTC
Carbon monoxidekg kg-1carbon_monoxideco210123Fast accessXX
Dimethyl sulfidekg kg-1dimethyl_sulfidedms217018
XX
Dinitrogen pentoxidekg kg-1dinitrogen_pentoxiden2o5217033
XX
Dust Aerosol (0.03 - 0.55 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1dust_aerosol_0.03-0.55um_mixing_ratioaermr04210004Fast accessXX
Dust Aerosol (0.55 - 0.9 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1dust_aerosol_0.55-0.9um_mixing_ratioaermr05210005Fast accessXX
Dust Aerosol (0.9 - 20 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1dust_aerosol_0.9-20um_mixing_ratioaermr06210006Fast accessXX
Ethanekg kg-1ethanec2h6217045Fast accessXX
Ethanolkg kg-1ethanolc2h5oh217046
XX
Ethenekg kg-1ethenec2h4217010
XX
Formaldehydekg kg-1formaldehydehcho210124Fast accessXX
Formic acidkg kg-1formic_acidhcooh217043
XX
Fraction of cloud cover(0 - 1)fraction_of_cloud_covercc248
XX
Geopotentialm2 s-2geopotentialz129
XX
Hydrogen peroxidekg kg-1hydrogen_peroxideh2o2217003Fast accessXX
Hydroperoxy radicalkg kg-1hydroperoxy_radicalho2217028
XX
Hydrophilic Black Carbon Aerosol Mixing Ratiokg kg-1hydrophilic_black_carbon_aerosol_mixing_ratioaermr09210009Fast accessXX
Hydrophilic Organic Matter Aerosol Mixing Ratiokg kg-1hydrophilic_organic_matter_aerosol_mixing_ratioaermr07210007Fast accessXX
Hydrophobic Black Carbon Aerosol Mixing Ratiokg kg-1hydrophobic_black_carbon_aerosol_mixing_ratioaermr10210010Fast accessXX
Hydrophobic Organic Matter Aerosol Mixing Ratiokg kg-1hydrophobic_organic_matter_aerosol_mixing_ratioaermr08210008Fast accessXX
Hydroxyl radicalkg kg-1hydroxyl_radicaloh217030Fast accessXX
Isoprenekg kg-1isoprenec5h8217016Fast accessXX
Leadkg kg-1leadpb217026
XX
Methacrolein MVKkg kg-1methacrolein_mvkispd217050

X
Methacrylic acidkg kg-1methacrylic_acidmcooh217044
XX
Methanekg kg-1methanech4_c217004Fast accessXX

Differences between CH4 and CH4_C

Methane sulfonic acidkg kg-1methane_sulfonic_acidmsa217022
XX
Methanolkg kg-1methanolch3oh217042
XX
Methyl glyoxalkg kg-1methyl_glyoxalch3cocho217023
XX
Methyl peroxidekg kg-1methyl_peroxidech3ooh217007
XX
Methylperoxy radicalkg kg-1methylperoxy_radicalch3o2217029
XX
Nitratekg kg-1nitrateno3_a217051
XX
Nitrate coarse mode aerosol mass mixing ratiokg kg-1nitrate_coarse_mode_aerosol_mass_mixing_ratioaermr17210248Fast accessXX
Nitrate fine mode aerosol mass mixing ratiokg kg-1nitrate_fine_mode_aerosol_mass_mixing_ratioaermr16210247Fast accessXX
Nitrate radicalkg kg-1nitrate_radicalno3217032
XX
Nitric acidkg kg-1nitric_acidhno3217006Fast accessXX
Nitrogen dioxidekg kg-1nitrogen_dioxideno2210121Fast accessXX
Nitrogen monoxidekg kg-1nitrogen_monoxideno217027Fast accessXX
Olefinskg kg-1olefinsole217011
XX
Organic etherskg kg-1organic_ethersror217036
XX
Organic nitrateskg kg-1organic_nitratesonit217015
XX
Ozonekg kg-1ozonego3210203Fast accessXX
Paraffinskg kg-1paraffinspar217009
XX
Pernitric acidkg kg-1pernitric_acidho2no2217034
XX
Peroxideskg kg-1peroxidesrooh217014
XX
Peroxy acetyl radicalkg kg-1peroxy_acetyl_radicalc2o3217035
XX
Peroxyacetyl nitratekg kg-1peroxyacetyl_nitratepan217013Fast accessXX
Potential vorticityK m2 kg-1 s-1potential_vorticitypv60
XX
Propanekg kg-1propanec3h8217047Fast accessXX
Propenekg kg-1propenec3h6217048
XX
Radonkg kg-1radonra210181
XX
Relative humidity%relative_humidityr157
XX
Sea Salt Aerosol (0.03 - 0.5 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1sea_salt_aerosol_0.03-0.5um_mixing_ratioaermr01210001Fast accessXX
Sea Salt Aerosol (0.5 - 5 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1sea_salt_aerosol_0.5-5um_mixing_ratioaermr02210002Fast accessXX
Sea Salt Aerosol (5 - 20 um) Mixing Ratiokg kg-1sea_salt_aerosol_5-20um_mixing_ratioaermr03210003Fast accessXX
Specific cloud ice water contentkg kg-1specific_cloud_ice_water_contentciwc247
XX
Specific cloud liquid water contentkg kg-1specific_cloud_liquid_water_contentclwc246
XX
Specific humiditykg kg-1specific_humidityq133Fast accessXX
Specific rain water contentkg kg-1specific_rain_water_contentcrwc75
XX
Specific snow water contentkg kg-1specific_snow_water_contentcswc76
XX
Stratospheric ozonekg kg-1stratospheric_ozone_tracero3s217024
XX
Sulphate Aerosol Mixing Ratiokg kg-1sulphate_aerosol_mixing_ratioaermr11210011Fast accessXX
Sulphur dioxidekg kg-1sulphur_dioxideso2210122Fast accessXX
TemperatureKtemperaturet130Fast accessXX
Terpeneskg kg-1terpenesc10h16217049
XX
U component of windm s-1u_component_of_windu131Fast accessXX
V component of windm s-1v_component_of_windv132Fast accessXX
Vertical velocityPa s-1vertical_velocity
135
XX

Satellite observations

Satellite observations are used by CAMS to constrain the global forecast model, ensuring the forecasts are as accurate as possible. The process of merging the numerical forecast model with the observations is called data assimilation.

The CAMS Global production system uses satellite data in its 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to constrain the initial atmospheric state that is used for the 5-day forecast. Apart from all the meteorological observations that form part of the ECMWF numerical weather prediction system, CAMS uses additional observations on atmospheric composition. Three categories of observations are listed below. The assimilated observations are the observations that are currently used to constrain the model; the monitored observations are the observations that are being tested for future implementation; and the planned observations are observations that are being considered for future implementation in the CAMS system.

Satellite data monitoring statistics are available here.

Instrument

Satellite

Space Agency

Data Provider

Species

MODIS

EOS-Aqua, EOS-Terra

NASA

NASA

AOD

MLS

EOS-Aura

NASA

NASA

O3 profile

OMI

EOS-Aura

NASA

KNMI

O3, NO2

OMIEOS-AuraNASANASASO2

OMPS

NOAA-20*, Suomi NPP

NOAA

EUMESAT

O3 layers

IASI

METOP-B, METOP-C

EUMETSAT/CNES

AC-SAF

CO

MOPITT

EOS-Terra

NASA

NCAR

CO

GOME-2

METOP-B, METOP-C

EUMETSAT/ESA

AC-SAF

O3, NO2, SO2

PMAp

METOP-A, METOP-B

EUMETSAT

EUMETSAT

AOD

TROPOMI

Sentinel-5p

ESA/NSO

ESA/KNMI/DLR

O3, SO2

*The NOAA-20 OMPS data were blacklisted in Dec 2020 because of some issues with the data. There are currently testing in torder to re-activate them soon.

Instrument

Satellite

Space Agency

Data Provider

Species

GOME-2

METOP-B, METOP-C

EUMETSAT/ESA

AC-SAF

HCHO

GOME-2

METOP-A

EUMETSAT/ESA

AC-SAF

O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO

IASI

METOP-A

EUMETSAT/CNES

AC-SAF

CO

TROPOMI

Sentinel-5p

ESA/NSO

ESA/KNMI/DLR

NO2, CO, HCHO

SBUV-2

NOAA-19

NOAA

NOAA

O3

PMAp

METOP-C

EUMETSAT

EUMETSAT

AOD

Instrument

Satellite

Space Agency

Data Provider

Species

SLSTR

Sentinel-3

ESA/EUMETSAT

EUMETSAT

AOD

IASI

METOP-A, -B, -C

EUMETSAT/CNES

ULB/LATMOS

O3, SO2

VIIRS

Suomi NPP

NASA/NOAA

EUMETSAT

AOD

SEVIRI

MSG

EUMETSAT

ICARE

AOD

Evaluation and Quality Assurance reports

The global forecasting system is continually being evaluated to ensure the output meets the expected requirements. Comprehensive Evaluation and Quality Assurance (EQA) reports are provided on a quarterly basis. Before each upgrade of the global forecasting system, the new system is tested and evaluated, and a so-called "e-suite EQA report" is produced. All reports are available here.

Quality monitoring graphics

CAMS uses a multitude of independent data sets to routinely monitor its global forecasts. It works with various data providers, acquiring the observations with appropriate timeliness and generating graphics that show the differences between the forecasts and the independent observations. See at https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/global-services

Guidelines

  1. Convert mass mixing ratio (MMR) to mass concentration or to volume mixing ratio (VMR)
  2. Representations of SO2 and SO4 in CAMS reanalysis

  3. For details on how convert from mixing ratio (kg per kg dry air) to concentration (kg/m3): CAMS Surface concentration of a given species
  4. The actual aerosol species represented in the model are defined more according to their chemical composition (e.g. sulphate, black carbon, organic matter) rather than their source type (e.g. biomass burning or fossil fuels).

    What is presented on the web charts as "biomass-burning AOD" is the sum of organic matter AOD (omaod550) and black carbon AOD (bcaod550). Organic matter is almost always the dominant component out of these.

    Historically, biomass-burning was the main source of such aerosols in the model, apart from a much lower background of primary OM+BC from fossil fuels and of OM from biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA).

    However, since a representation of anthropogenic SOA as a source of OM was added (in cycle 43r1, implemented in January 2017), the model also captures the relatively high levels of this OM around polluted cities.

    To sum up, if you want the data used for those web charts, take omaod550+bcaod550 (which will usually be fairly close to omaod550 alone). However, note that this will also show significant aerosol plumes from anthropogenic pollution as well as biomass burning.

Known issues

Issue typeDescriptionCycleNote
High SO2 values over north-eastern Brazil

High SO2 values over north-eastern Brazil on 18 January 2020 and 16 June 2020 at 06:00:00 are artificial and are due to the assimilation of some spurious satellite observations of SO2 in one of the datasets used by CAMS. 

47r1
BC concentrations in the mid/upper troposphere tend to be too high

Some of the low background BC concentrations in the mid/upper troposphere tend to be too high as an artefact of the data assimilation as it improves the total AOD. (They're still very low compared to polluted areas, but can be somewhat higher than they should.) This aspect of the impact of data assimilation on aerosol speciation is something that we're continuing to look into. (The accompanying "control run", a model-only product with no AOD assimilation, can often has a more realistic speciation and vertical profile in this regard, but at the cost of a poorer agreement with observations of total AOD.)

47r1 or 46r1

Dust emissions are too high in cycle 46r1

See details here: Dust emissions are too high in Cycle 46r146r1



References

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This document has been produced in the context of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS).

The activities leading to these results have been contracted by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, operator of CAMS on behalf of the European Union (Delegation Agreement signed on 11/11/2014). All information in this document is provided "as is" and no guarantee or warranty is given that the information is fit for any particular purpose.

The users thereof use the information at their sole risk and liability. For the avoidance of all doubt, the European Commission and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts have no liability in respect of this document, which is merely representing the author's view.