Description of the upgrade

The list of important changes introduced on this occasion includes:
  1. a new coupling of the physics with the dynamics;
  2. a new optimal interpolation analysis of soil moisture and temperature, using the analysis of screen-level temperature and humidity introduced in March;
  3. US profilers and dropsonde data are used; radiosonde temperatures are bias corrected using information carried out in the TEMP message; ship winds are assigned to a height consistent with the information reported in WMO tables; ship humidity data are blacklisted;
  4. waves slope and wind stress formulations are improved in the oceanic wave package

Implemented: 13 July 1999  




ECMWF Newsletter: An article "A revised land-surface analysis scheme in the Integrated Forecasting System" from the ECMWF Newsletter No.88